A recent interest of mine – and a reoccurring theme in the events of life – has been Greek Mythology, and the larger role of myth in our lives.  I realize that initially, most people will assume that mythology has very little to do with their lives.  But I have come to realize that my life needs a good dose of a mythic element to it.  I will attempt to explain how I arrived at this realization, and why this has anything to do with a book by John Eldredge.

Last year, in anticipation of a trip to Greece and Turkey that took place this past March, I began reading a collection of classic Greek myths.  I’m sure you are at least vaguely familiar with characters such as Jason and the Argonauts, Helen of Troy, Hercules, and the adventures of Odysseus.  I enjoyed reading the full accounts of these stories and began making connections to the larger meaning of these myths in Greek culture.

I also began to understand the role of myth in any given culture.  I posted my thoughts on how understanding mythology might give more insight into the Biblical book of Job.  This connection isn’t normally made because most today misunderstand myth.  For the majority of people, a myth is a fictional story, or even an outright lie – something akin to a fib.  If I say that Job is a mythic story, most will assume that I mean to say that the story of Job never really took place.  But that is not the true meaning of classical mythology.  Myths were ancient attempts to describe what was happening in the spiritual realm, where the gods were at work.  And myths today still serve to connect us to deeper truths and help us recognize where God is still working.

Myths are, first of all, stories: stories which confront us with something transcendent and eternal …  a means by which the eternal expresses itself in time.  (from Waking The Dead)

100 CharactersSo when I read another book, 100 Characters From Classical Mythology, something was tugging deeper at my soul, but I  didn’t know what it was.  I intended to write about the book, but I honestly didn’t know what I would say.  Nevertheless, I enjoyed reading it.

Then one of those moments took place where several seemingly unrelated trails suddenly merged together down a clear path forward.  It happened, appropriately enough, while in Athens, Greece.  Maybe it was spending the day walking among temples to Zeus, theaters to Dionysus, and statues of Poseidon that served as inspiration – I am certain all of that only fueled the inspiration.  But while on that trip, I began reading a book by John Eldredge called Waking The Dead.

One of the unexpected themes to emerge from the book was that when our hearts get overwhelmed with the mundane, the familiar, and busyness, we begin to lose touch with the larger narrative that God is at work in our hearts and we have a role to play in what God is up to in the world around us.  This is why we need to keep the mythic element alive in our hearts.  From Eldredge,

You will not think clearly about your life until you think mythically.  Until you see with the eyes of your heart.

Waking The DeadI realized that my heart was getting bogged down in errands to run, bills to pay, and obligations to meet.  I was losing touch with the larger story I am a part of.  I think that is why reading about the Trojan War and Perseus and Pegasus stirred something in me.  Eldredge helped connect that stirring to the passions God has set in my heart.

Greek mythology may not do much for you, but the principle is the same.  You can view whatever stage of life you are in through the lens of the reality before you – be it sitting in front of a computer screen all day, changing diapers, or paying off school loans.  Or you can view your life with the eyes of your heart and see the larger story you are a part of.  I have determined that I need more of the mythic element in my life.

In March I was able to travel to Greece and Turkey with my brother.  I am continuing to process each place we visited, share some of our adventures, and take what I can from having been there.  For a preview of the trip, read the A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey entry and read my thoughts on Athens and Corinth.

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After spending about four days in Greece, we hopped a plane to Istanbul, Turkey and caught a connecting flight to Izmir.  From the Izmir airport, we took a train about an hour south to the town of Selçuk.  Unfortunately, the sun had already set, so there was not much to see.  Arriving in Selçuk, we found our hotel and were warmly greeted with some tea and good conversation with a man named Lucky.  I liked this place already!  Selçuk is a nice little town where shop owners want to sit and talk with you.  There are good places to eat, coffee shops, and sweet shops as well.  Right outside of the town, sits the site of Ephesus.  Many tourists come from the cruise ship port not far from Ephesus, but increasingly travelers are discovering that Selçuk is a great place to spend a couple of days away from the tourist town of Kusadasi.

PrieneNeither my brother or I are big on guided tours – they are always moving you on to the next stop before having adequate time to explore the present stop and the lunch buffets are usually pretty bad – but about the only way to see the ancient sites of Priene, Miletus, and Didyma was via guided tour.  Priene is the home to the Temple of Athena, which rests at the base of an imposing cliff face.  The site was abandoned when the shoreline receded.  The remote nature of the site means that much of the building material is still there, resembling a jigsaw puzzle dumped out over the site.  It is not mentioned in Scripture, but its proximity to Miletus suggests that the early church nearby would have had contact with Priene.

Across what used to be a bay, sits the site of Miletus.  Miletus boasted three harbors in its day, along with a 25,000 seat amphitheater, much of which is still intact.  The rest of the site was unfortunately flooded for the most part, but a large Roman bath complex is still there.  It must have been impressive in its day.  Miletus is mentioned in Acts 20: On Paul’s Third Journey, he sailed into Miletus where he met the elders from Ephesus, wanting to avoid getting delayed on his way to Jerusalem.  Today Miletus is about five miles inland from the coast and suffered the same fate as Ephesus and Priene when the river silted up, cutting the city off from the coastline.IMG_1110

The final stop of the day was Didyma, which wasn’t so much a town in Paul’s day as it was a temple complex to Apollo.  Today it is odd to see a town built up around the site, with kids and dogs running around and ruins lying in people’s backyards.  DidymaThe Temple of Apollo was the third largest Greek temple of its time and would provide some perspective to the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, given that little remains of what would have been the largest temple.  Walking among the ruins, we felt like we were on a movie set constructed for giants.  Didyma was linked to Miletus via a 12-mile sacred processional way.

The next day we walked through the site of Ephesus.  Having walked through many archaeological sites at this point, the prominent feature of Ephesus is just how large an area the site is.  From the upper entrance, you can walk through a marketplace, small temples, archways, an Odeon, only to realize you have not yet reached the main road through the city.  Curetes street leads you past several structures to the terrace houses (which are worth the extra admission price) and finally leaves you facing the Library of Celsus.  The main agora itself covers the area of two football fields, then you are awed at the 25,000-seat theater.  The theater overlooks Harbor Street that would have led to the docks.

Celsus LibraryThere are many areas that remain unexcavated or have not been kept up.  Ephesus had a population of 250,000, by some accounts the third largest city in the Roman Empire behind Rome and Alexandria.  Walking through the city, the surrounding hills – now just grassy hillsides – must have been covered with houses and shops.  Paul had truly entered the big city!

And you still would not have come upon the primary identity of the city: the Temple of Artemis, the largest temple in the empire.  We made our way through an orchard back to the main road and found the site of the temple.  There is little that remains, only its enormous footprint in the earth and a single reconstructed column.  I am glad we were able to visit Didyma to appreciate what it must have looked like.

There are many insights that can be gained by walking through these sites.  I hope to fill a book with them one day, but in the meantime here are some impressions:

Insight #1Pagan temples dominated the landscape of Asia Minor.  While pagan temples were an important part of every ancient city, the identities of the cities in Asia Minor were forged by their temples.  I admit that this is just my impression, but I got the sense that cities like Rome, Alexandria, and Athens would have continued on if you removed their temples.  But in Asia Minor, if you removed the temples you would be stripping places like Miletus, Priene, and Ephesus of their very identity.  Ephesus and Miletus (Didyma) were rivals primarily because of their rival temples.  So when Paul strolls through town and announces that “in [Jesus] the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple” (Ephesians 2:21), that announcement was challenging the very power structures and the livelihood of these cities.  This is especially true in Ephesus…

ArtemisInsight #2The Temple of Artemis and its influence on Ephesus.  It is difficult to overstate how much the identity of Ephesus was inextricably tied to the Temple of Artemis.  It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World for a reason.  Jerome Murphy-O’Connor notes that, “Artemis was part of the fabric of Ephesus, and the city was unthinkable without her.  Ministry in Ephesus, Paul mused, was going to be very different.”  In Athens when Paul announced that God does not live in your magnificent temples, the philosophers perhaps raised an eyebrow.  In Ephesus, that sentiment morphed its citizens into a violent mob.  This led to the uproar in the Great Theater.

Insight #3The scene at the Great Theater.  The Temple of Artemis contributed greatly to the economy of Ephesus.  Just as a modern-day sports team would draw fans throughout the region on game day contributing to the local economy, Artemis drew pilgrims from the region on a continual basis.  An entire industry sprang up around the production of small shrines of the temple and Artemis (available in the gift shop, no doubt) of which several have been unearthed in the region.  So Paul’s message was not just perceived as a religious threat to paganism, but also an economic threat to the livelihood of the city.Ephesus

This is what sparks the riot in Ephesus that spills into the Great Theater.  Acts 19 records that as the mob filled the theater, “they all shouted in unison for about two hours: ‘Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!'”  Order was eventually restored but Paul was clearly shaken by the event.  Writing from Ephesus to the church at Corinth, Paul notes, “If I fought wild beasts in Ephesus with no more than human hopes, what have I gained?”  Later, Paul would write,

We do not want you to be uninformed, brothers and sisters, about the hardships we suffered in the province of Asia.  We were under great pressure, far beyond our ability to endure, so that we despaired of life itself.  Indeed, we felt we had received the sentence of death.

There is little doubt that seeing his colleagues being dragged into the Great Theater and he, himself being threatened, this event left an indelible mark on Paul’s psyche.

There is much more that could be said about Ephesus.  In fact, my next project is exploring these very themes in the letter of Ephesians.  But this will suffice for a trip update.

Next up: Cappadocia!

Last month I was able to travel to Greece and Turkey with my brother.  I wanted to share my experience in each city, as well as some insights gained.  For a preview of the trip, read the A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey entry and read my thoughts on Athens.

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AcrocorinthThe Biblical city of Corinth is about an hour train ride from Athens, though for the Apostle Paul it may have been 2 or 3 days journey.  From the train station, we took a taxi to the Acrocorinth.  The Acrocorinth is an 1,800 ft. high natural rock fortress that serves as the backdrop to many photos of the ancient city.  It strategically oversees the narrow strip of land that separates the Peloponnesian Peninsula from mainland Greece, and thus gave Corinth an elevated military and economic status. Oddly, most tourists skip the Acrocorinth and head straight for the ancient city.  This is a mistake!  I had read that we were likely to have the walled fortress to ourselves and that was indeed the case.  We spent a good hour (and could have spent more) exploring the citadel’s three gates that offered the only access to the top, the mostly intact walls encircling the summit, and various structures representing different eras of occupation over the past 2,500 years.

In the middle of an overgrown patch of ground at the top, one can see the foundation of a temple to Aphrodite.  Strabo wrote that this temple was once home to a thousand temple prostitutes.  More on this below, but it is difficult to capture the full impact of Corinth if you skip the Acrocorinth.

CorinthAfter overcoming a small language barrier (tip: when the taxi driver quotes you 15 Euro to shuttle you around Corinth, it is best to confirm in writing that he is not actually quoting you 50 Euro) we were dropped at the site of the city of Paul’s day.  The first thing you notice is the remaining columns from the Temple of Apollo, dating back to the 6th-century BC.  We began with the museum, which houses numerous artifacts discovered at the site and gave a flavor for what the city must have been like when Paul arrived from Athens.  Two main streets, the city agora, and other temple sites allowed us to wander and explore far more than can initially be observed from the entrance.  An adjacent site across the parking lot offers a glimpse of the ancient theater and the Odeon.

Corinth CanalThe final stop in Corinth was the Corinth Canal.  The canal cuts through rock across the 4-mile strip of land that connects the Gulf of Corinth to the Aegean Sea.  It was completed in 1893 but soon became unworkable for modern ships.  Yet it still represents an impressive feat of engineering.  It is also the location for several ancient attempts to bridge the two bodies of water at the Corinth harbor.  Julius Caesar began plans to dig a canal here before his assassination.  Caligula revived the plan, but it was not until Nero that the project got underway.  The huge effort stalled and eventually became a road that transported smaller vessels across the strip of land.

The archaeological site corresponds well to Paul’s two letters to the Corinthian church.  Here are just a few of the points of contact:

Insight #1The Temple of Aphrodite.  As noted above, the Acrocorinth was home to the Temple of Aphrodite.  Corinth was also a harbor town with a constant influx of sailors.  It is debated whether worshippers would have made the trek up to this temple or if it simply served as a backdrop to the sacred prostitution in the city itself.  Regardless, there is little doubt that the Temple of Aphrodite atop the Acrocorinth would have literally cast a shadow on the town below.  Corinth became synonymous with sketchy behavior.  Undoubtedly, this explains why Paul spends a considerable amount of space warning the Corinthians about sexual immorality:

Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ himself? Shall I then take the members of Christ and unite them with a prostitute? Never!

The practice was not simply one that offered temptation if you wandered into the wrong section of town, but it hung over the city like a cloud.  All you had to do was look up anywhere in the city and you were reminded of the city’s notoriety.

Insight #2Temple of Asclepius.  There is a room in the museum at Corinth where you will find replicas of an assortment of body parts.  These have been found at the site of a nearby temple to Asclepius.  Asclepius was a deified Greek physician, whose symbol of entwined snakes still represents the medical community today.  The site included dorms and baths where the sick would come to heal and recover.  People would also offer these replicated body parts analogous to their illness as votive offerings for healing.  One cannot help but see these and reflect back on Paul’s imagery of the body when writing to the church at Corinth.

Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ.

It is possible that Paul may have seen these votive offerings being sold in the local market to the sick headed up to the Asclepion.  While all these body parts look a little creepy, when fully assembled and animated with life, the body become a marvel.  Is this what Paul envisioned when he was speaking of the church?  Elsewhere Paul encourages believers to offer their whole body – all its parts – as a living sacrifice, perhaps as opposed to votive offerings to Asclepius.Asclepion

ErastusInsight #3The Erastus Inscription.  As you make your way across the parking lot of the site down to the theater grounds, you will notice a sectioned-off area on the stone pavement below.  A large inscription on the stone reads, “Erastus, in return for his aedileship, paved this at his own expense.”  This is known as the Erastus Inscription and is an important find, as it may refer to the same Erastus mentioned in Romans 16:23, “Erastus, who is the city’s director of public works, and our brother Quartus send you their greetings.”  It is one of only a couple inscriptions that can be linked to a reference from Paul and the New Testament.

Insight #4The Isthmian Games.  Corinth was a sports town, as we might say today.  Corinth hosted the Isthmian Games, second only to the ancient Olympic Games, for several centuries.  By the time Paul arrived in Corinth, the games already had a 500-year history.  There are several tantalizing metaphors along these lines that Paul utilizes in his letters to the Corinthians.  We stood on a long road next to the ancient agora that served as a race course lined with box seating for dignitaries.  If Paul sold his leather-goods and tents in the agora he would have been familiar with this path.  His time in Corinth may have overlapped during one of these games, as they were held every two years.  The winner of an event would have received a garland of a type of celery, which quickly wilts after being plucked from the ground.

Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training. They do it to get a crown that will not last; but we do it to get a crown that will last forever.

These are only a couple of references Paul mentions throughout his letters to running a race and winning a crown or claiming the prize.  Quite fitting for a sports town!

The next stop is Ephesus!

Last month I was able to travel to Greece and Turkey with my brother.  I wanted to share a snapshot (and snapshots!) of each city, as well as some insights gained.  For a preview of the trip, read the A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey entry.

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Caryatids

The first stop on our trip was the city of Athens.  Upon dropping our bags in our room, the first thing we did was take an evening stroll around the Acropolis.  Initially, what strikes you is how elevated the Acropolis is above the rest of the city.  It is not difficult to imagine a commoner straining his or her neck looking up the dramatic slopes of the rocky plateau, only imagining what must be taking place there.  Surely it was a mystical, awe-inspiring place.  The next morning, we walked through the Acropolis site, taking in the Theater of Dionysus, climbing the grand entrance steps, passing the Temple of Nike, marveling at the impressive sculpted caryatid columns of the Erechtheion, and finally gazing at the Parthenon.  The Acropolis gives a wonderful view of the surrounding city, encircled by ocean and large hills.  The Acropolis does not disappoint!

On StrikeLater that day, we surveyed the city again from the top of Mount Lycabettus, which is actually higher than the Acropolis.  (Of course, the Greeks had a mythic explanation for this.)  The next day we set out for more sites, but encountered the soon-to-be familiar “On Strike” sign, announcing various historical sites closed for the day – frustrating for a visitor with limited time in the city!  We did manage to discover Mars Hill and the Areopagus (literally standing on top of it, trying to figure out exactly where it was).  The final day before we left for the airport, we did a quick pass through the Ancient Agora and took one last look at the Acropolis.

Parthenon

Besides the old stuff, one thing you quickly notice is the many stray dogs that roam the city.  Most however, seem well-fed and even have de-facto owners who care for them.  In the National Gardens we observed a couple police officers call for all the dogs – about 8 or 10 responded – and led them out of the park at closing.  You will also notice graffiti everywhere.  We even ran across a shop that specialized in all your graffiti needs – paints, stencils, as well as tips and tricks!  I read some speculation that given the economic climate of Greece, graffiti may be the cheapest form of advertising your business, though I didn’t gather that from what we saw.  There is little doubt that the economic climate has people frustrated, both at the politicians and at those who think the problem should be solved as long as someone else foots the bill.  I would look forward to visiting Athens again when it has its economic house in order.

As far as historical/Biblical insights, here are some more thoughts on Athens:

Mars HillInsight #1Athens isn’t nearly as important to the Apostle Paul as other cities.  Visiting Athens versus Corinth today, we might naturally assume that Athens was a key city in reaching the Gentiles.  As I mentioned in a previous post, for all its influence Athens does not stand out in the New Testament.  Paul quickly moves on to Corinth.  But his sermon delivered on Mars Hill is recorded in Acts 17, thus giving Athens a lot of air time.  I imagine one reason that Athens is not predominant in Paul’s thinking can be found in Acts 17: “All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there spent their time doing nothing but talking about and listening to the latest ideas.”  The picture we get is that Paul could have had many great discussions with the lovers of philosophy in Athens, but would have seen very little transformation take place.  A few did accept Paul’s message, but Athens isn’t mentioned again.

Temple of HephaestusInsight #2What is recorded in Acts 17 rings authentic.  Despite the relegated role Athens takes on Paul’s journeys, his message in Acts 17 does capture the spirit of the city.  Acts 17:16 says Paul, “was greatly distressed to see that the city was full of idols.”  The city today is still littered with temples, statues, and monuments from that time.  I can only imagine what it must have looked liked to Paul.  Yes, every city of any size in Paul’s day outside of Judaea would have had a temple or two to various deities, but even for Paul the amount of it in Athens distressed him.   Yet at the beginning of his sermon, he chooses to identify this with spiritual hunger: “People of Athens! I see that in every way you are very religious.”  Athens was a city of learning, ideas, and spiritual hunger!  “The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands” Paul would go on to say.  The Parthenon, the Temple of Nike, Hephaestus, Dionysus, Zeus, the Erechtheion – they were all amazing sites.  But for all their glory, past and present, they are not where you will find God.  I imagine that must have stung a bit, “God does not live in your magnificent temples.”  The good news was – and is – that though God does not live in these temples, “he is not far from any one of us.”

Greek StatueInsight #3Greek mythology reveals much about how the ancients understood the world beyond.  I’ll comment more on this in a future post as I process it more, but one of the things I wanted to do in preparation for this trip was to better understand Greek mythology.  And although I enjoyed it, I wasn’t sure what to do with it.  I was going to write a post on one of the books I read, but honestly didn’t know what to say.  But having immersed myself firsthand in the subject matter for a couple of weeks – walking through it, touching it, breathing it – I have come to appreciate it much more.  It circles back to Paul’s own observation: “I see that in every way you are very religious.”  And I have concluded that my own life could use more of the mythic – that attempt to understand the spiritual world and connect to the larger story  – not less!

Check back for the rest of the sites on my journey!  Corinth is next.

Tis the time of year when there will be many year in review type of articles and lists, so I thought I would add to the onslaught by doing a quick review of my own.  The end of the year is a great time to reflect on all that has taken place.  So in this space I want to look back at topics and posts that helped define 2012 for me.  The links will take you to each entry.

I usually begin each year by doing my own personal/spiritual review using the Fruit of the Spirit.  Reading through the Old Testament historical books this past spring, I was reminded that for all the self-examination and disciplines we can engage in, there are still areas in our life that stubbornly remain unchanged.  The Hebrew scripture calls these The High Places.  I’m not sure how I have done at removing mine.

April brought me to the poetic books of the Old Testament (I read through the OT this past year) and the book of Job is a book that seems to yield new layers of meaning each time I read it.  I summarized the most recent layer in Worldviews, Greek Mythology, and Job.  I actually have done quite a bit of reading on Greek mythology in recent months.  It’s one of those subjects I always heard a lot about but never fully understood, so I decided to absorb all I could on the subject.

Speaking of Greek mythology, one of the most interesting books I read this past year was Moonwalking With Einstein.  It is a book about memory techniques, especially those associated with the ancient Greeks.  I am currently using these techniques to recall 100 of the Greek gods and where they fit in the Greek pantheon.  The technique works!

And while we are on the topic of books, I decided to share the Top Five Books That Have Influenced Me thus far on my journey.

One of the more popular posts of this past year was a reflection on prayer and the word Amen.  Honestly, this has not been the easiest or most fulfilling of years for me, so I am grateful that sometimes Amen is all that God needs to hear from me.

Every year brings its share of tragedies to the headlines, but this year seemed especially heavy with senseless violence.  I could have reposted God’s Plan Or Personal Responsibility on several different occasions these past twelve months.  It is always fascinating to observe how people use/misuse or blame God whenever these things occur.

To end on a high note, a fortune cookie once told me that I should write a book.  And that materialized this past year with the release of Ten Essential Words.  If you haven’t checked it out yet, I would be delighted for you to give it a read and let me know your thoughts.  I started writing it back in 2006, so it was a personal milestone to see it come to fruition.

Fortune Cookie

The cookie told me to do it

I’ll continue to use this blog to share what I’m reading, what I’m thinking, and what I’m writing.  Looking ahead to 2013, my brother and I are taking a trip to Greece and Turkey in March, so I’m sure this will turn in to a bit of a travel blog as well.  If you don’t already follow this blog (or my book website) and you enjoy it, please do so.  The content differs between the two, so sign up for both!

Thanks for processing life with me and sharing your comments.  Have a blessed New Year!

Dave

I always enjoy when two or three ideas converge to reveal a perspective I had not previously considered.  It is why I tend to read a couple books at a time, often on very different topics.  I just finished reading a book – The Powers That Be – on which I previously shared my thoughts.  One of the ideas that I enjoyed the most was Wink’s breakdown of worldviews.  To summarize:

  • The Ancient Worldview held that everything earthly has its heavenly counterpart and every spiritual reality has physical consequenses.
  • The Materialist Worldview claims that there is no spiritual world, only reason and what can be known through the five senses.
  • The Spiritualist Worldview simply holds that spirit is good and matter is evil.  Gnosticism arises out of this worldview.
  • The Theological Worldview acknowledges both a spiritual world and a material world, but compartmentalize the two, allowing only minimal interaction between them.

From here Wink argues for an Integral Worldview, where it is acknowledged that the spiritual and the material realm interact and what happens in one can affect the other.  Ironically, it seems to me that many Christians unwittingly still hold to the Ancient (fatalistic pre determinism), Spiritualist (the material world doesn’t matter), or Theological (there is a heaven, but it has little bearing on what is happening on earth) worldview.

This brief summary of worldviews helped me greatly as I picked up a book on Greek mythology.  I am only moderately aware of the more well-known Greek gods and the stories behind them.  But reading these stories armed with a better understanding of the ancient worldview has placed Greek mythology in an entirely new setting for me.  These stories are an attempt to make sense of what was happening in the material realm by positing what must have been taking place in the spiritual realm, since the spiritual realm was the real impetus behind temporal events.  Thus when a battle was won or lost, or an empire or individual rose to power, this was only a manifestation of what was happening among the gods.  It was fate!

All this brings me to my reading of the biblical book of Job.  I have read Job many times and it is always a challenge to know where this book fits theologically.  Is it fiction?  Is it a parable?  Is it describing actual events?  Any commentary on Job will wrestle with these questions.  But armed with a fresh perspective on worldviews, I am now convinced that Job falls in the genre of ancient mythology.  Now before anyone gets too fired up, please understand: mythology does not mean that the story being told is a fictional story.  It was long held that the stories of the Trojan wars never really took place until discoveries confirmed that they were actually grounded in real events.  So it can be said that Job took actual events and, through the lens of the ancient worldview, tried to make sense of what must have been driving these events in the spiritual realm.

Which makes the person of Job all the more remarkable.  It is often pointed out that Job was challenging the predominant perspective of his day that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.  This is why Job’s friends throughout the book insist that, given the calamities that befall Job, he must have done something wrong.  But I believe that Job was also challenging a much deeper held belief grounded in the ancient worldview: that what was happening to him was being driven by events in the spiritual realm and that it was pointless for him to fight them.  It was fate!  It is at this point that Job does the unthinkable.  Job not only believes that he can argue his case before God, upending the notion that bad things happen to bad people, but that in doing so he can actually intervene in the spiritual realm, bucking the notion of fate.  And it is here that his friends are utterly incensed at Job’s words.

It could be read that in the end God condemns Job for asking for his day in court, but I don’t believe that is what takes place.  In the end it is Job’s friends that are soundly rebuked, while Job is the one interacting with the Almighty.  And in the end, he is rewarded for it.